Saturday, March 14, 2020
Brain Cancer Essays - Medicine, Health, Clinical Medicine, RTT Brain Cancer The body normally forms new cells only when they are needed to replace old or damaged ones. If something happens to disturb this controlled process, abnormal or excessive cells are produced. When this occurs a tumor is developed. This is known as cancer. When a tumor is developed on the brain, it is called a brain tumor or brain cancer. Brain tumors can be benign or malignant (benign being not cancerous and malignant being cancerous). Both types can be deadly when dealing with the brain. Benign brain tumors consist of very slow growing cells. They have distinct borders and rarely spread to other locations. When viewed under a microscope, the cells of a benign tumor have an almost normal appearance. Even though these tumors sound harmless they can be life-threatening when located in such a vital area. Since the skull is unable to expand when the tumor grows it puts pressure on the brain. This results in damaged brain tissues and if left untreated a person could die. A malignant tumor is a tumor that could potentially invade and destroy important tissues and cells. They can also spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Brain tumors can initially start in the brain. They can also spread to other parts of the body from the brain but this rarely happens. Some tumors may be worse than others. Tumor staging is used to determine the extent of cancer. The stage indicates if the cancer has spread and how far. The stages are listed below: T = Primary tumor size/extent T0: Primary tumor not present T1, T2, T3, T4 The higher the number, the larger the size/extent of the tumor. N = Regional lymph node involvement N0: No lymph node involvement N1, N2, N3 The higher the number, the more lymph node involvement. M = Distant metastasis M0: no metastasis M1: Metastasis present The cause of brain cancer is unknown. It is likely they are caused by many factors. Some of these factors are genetic damage, inheritance, electromagnetic fields, weak immune system, viruses, injury, diet, chemicals, hormones, environmental factors, and occupational factors. The most common and often first symptoms of brain tumors are headaches and seizures. Later symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever, change in pulse, and trouble breathing. Mental changes may also occur such as difficulty in communication and speech. In general symptoms greatly depend on the location of the tumor. For example if the tumor is on the occipital lobe, you would have problems with your vision. Treatment of a tumor depends on its location and type, but surgical removal of the tumor if the primary treatment for cancer. Some tumors can be removed without harm to any part of the brain while others are in areas that make surgical removal impossible. Most tumors are treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. A new procedure is being tried called gamma knife, which is a type of radio surgery. It uses precise radiation to isolate and kill the tumor. One positive aspect of this procedure is that it limits the amount of radiation that the entire brain receives so less normal brain cells are destroyed. Some Statistics Within the next year, over 100,000 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed with brain cancer. Brain tumors are the second leading cause of death in the age group 15-34. Brain tumors are the second fastest growing cause of cancer death among those over age 65. Approximately 44 percent of all primary brain tumors are benign. Unlike most benign tumors when located on the brain they can cause death. Because of their location brain, tumors are difficult to treat. Brain cancer research is underfunded. The cause of brain cancer is still unknown. The cure rate for brain cancer is lower than that of most other types of cancer.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Incentive Plans - Research Paper Example Salary incentive plans are best suitable when organizations need to exercise greater control over the sales force in order to achieve organizational goals including the development of new market segments, excellence in customer services, and delivery of other support functions. In case of team selling activities, this incentive plan is more appropriate because it is very difficult for the management to identify individuals whose effort contributed to the sale. In addition, the method can be used in any situation where a flawless employee performance evaluation is not possible. From the perspective of a salesperson, the salary incentive plan is more secure because incentive rate does not change according to the sales volume fluctuation. In the words of Reinfeld (1996), employees who are working in the service sector are non-aggressive and they need a stable environment to perform their tasks effectively. From an employer perspective, this incentive plan is helpful for the organization to operate its business activities more efficiently as employees are not forced to increase the sales volume under this plan. Advantages As Reinfeld (1996) points out, high level of management control over the sales force is the most potential advantage of salary incentive plans; and this incentive plan can assure salespeople a steady and secure income. As the salary incentive is at a fixed rate, it is easy for the management to monitor and control its budgeting activities effectively. Another benefit of this plan is that it is very easy to understand. Equal treatment of employees assists the organization to avoid employee conflicts to a great extent. Under this plan, the company incurs relatively fixed sales costs, and this situation reduces the level of future uncertainty as well. Disadvantages Many companies claim that this plan would not improve employee productivity significantly as employees are paid regardless of the sales volume. The most notable demerit of this incentive p lan is that unproductive employees are paid for the effort of other productive employees. In other words, efficient and hardworking employees are not sufficiently paid for their extra effort. Under this incentive system, firms are often forced to exercise close supervision over their sales force. According to Reinfeld (1996), the salary incentive plan does not provide any incentive for a balanced sales mix. Commission plans Under the commission incentive system, payments are made on the basis of actual employee performance or sales volume. Since an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity level rests with his/her own skills and efficiencies, this plan offers an unlimited incentive to employees. To be more specific, commission plans assist employees to determine their income level. Commission rates are determined by the organization. The commission plan is more appropriate when sales are promoted by individuals rather than the team effort. If the organization practices aggressive competition s trategies, commission incentive plans would be more suitable. Advantages According to Zenger and Marshall (1995), the most notable benefit of commission plans is that payment is directly linked to employee performance under this system. Commission incentive plans are very easy to be administered and commission rates can be easily computed. It provides employees with an opportunity to increase their earnings based on their performance.Ã
Monday, February 10, 2020
Risk and Threats of Cloud Computing Services - Research Paper Example In spiteÃ of the varied horizonÃ beingÃ offered by the cloud computing services, most of the enterprises are skeptical about the safety of the cloud environment and are less willing to take the risks.Ã Ã In order to maintain theÃ clientageÃ and market competitiveness, cloud service providers must learn from the managed service provider (MSP) model toÃ guaranteeÃ secure services to their clients along with increasingÃ virtualizationÃ serviceÃ efficiencies, (Foster, 1998). Further, theÃ companiesÃ that are opting for cloud services are unaware of the unidentified risks existingÃ withinÃ the cloud environment. The ability of the cloud computing model to offer its clients/users to utilize the service providerÃ¢â¬â¢s applications which run on a cloud model infrastructure and these applications can be accessed by a number of clients through a system interface, for example, a Web browser, web-based email system. The user is free of responsibilities such as to manage the infrastructure, web servers, operation management and applications, data storage server maintenance, and network application tasks. b.Ã Platform as a Service (PaaS):Ã The cloud computingÃ PaaSÃ model offers the user the facility to deploy itself on the computing infrastructure which is built according to the user related applications with the help of programming languages like Java, Net, etc.). As already stated before, the user does not have to manage the infrastructure of the cloud computing service, but the user has full
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Ice and Snow Removal Essay Ice can affect an airplaneÃ¢â¬â¢s engine two ways. First, it can form in the carburetor of the engine, blocking the travel of the fuel-air mixture through the carb and possibly resulting in engine failure. Second, ice can also form over the air inlets through which the stream of air must flow on its way to the intake system of the power plant (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 14). Deep inside of the carb, there is a little passageway through increase in its temperature because the compression physically forces the molecules of the gas closer to each other. When the compressive force is removed, as it is when the fuel-air mixture travels back into a wide opening of the venturi, the temperature of the gas drops. Cooling occurs because the compressive force has been removed and the molecules spread out; hence, molecular activity (heat) declines. A small flapper that controls how much fuel air mixture is allowed to go into the cylinders is placed in or very near the venturi tube. This flapper device is called a Ã¢â¬Å"throttle place. Ã¢â¬ When you push in or pull out the throttle control in the cockpit, the action is to move the throttle plate in the carburetor. In turn, the throttle plate is regulating the amount of the fuel-air mixture that is being fed to the intake system of the engine: more flow, more power; less flow, less power. It works the same way in a car engine (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p. 242). When the air is colder than freezing, ice loves to form on the edges of hard objects that are placed in the stream of the air laden with water vapor. Moreover, the temperature drop in the carburetor can be as much as 90F and the freezing point of water is 32Ã °F, carburetor ice can be a possibility anytime (Lankford, 2000 p. 68); hence, the removal of ice and snow is necessary . Discussion Ice Formation and the Processes Involved In understanding the concepts of ice and snow removal, it is essential to understand the process behind the rationale of ice formation in these structures to further comprehend the rationale behind the mechanics of ice and snow removal. Icing on the airframe of an airplane is deadly, although severity cannot be overemphasized (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p. 242). Any accumulation is a situation that must be dealt with immediate concern especially is it has been prior to plane functioning. The course of action the pilot takes depends upon many factors, including but certainly not limited to whether the airplane has any ice-protection equipment. Normally the water in the air is in a gaseous state, and we refer to it as water vapor. Water vapor will change to the liquid state at a certain temperature (determined by atmospheric conditions) and become visible, and such temperature is considered as the dew point (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 14). When the dew point is lower than the ambient temperature, the vapor remains a gas, and the water molecules may not be evident in the air. When much vapor is contained in the air that the air cannot hold any more, the humidity has reached or very nearly approached the 100% level (Ashford, Stanton, Moore, 1997 p. 312). When humidity hits 100 percent, dew point and temperature will be the same, and water vapor will start becoming visible. The formation may evidently become fog, clouds, rain, drizzle, or other forms (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 16). Airplanes can fly just fine through most visible moisture as long as the temperature at the flight level is warm enough that the water do not freeze. However, when the ambient temperatures are cold enough that the water in the air is already frozen, it generally will not adhere to the airframe: hence, structural icing is not generally a problem in those conditions. Water can exist in the liquid state at temperatures below 32F. It is called super cooled water (Ashford, Stanton, Moore, 1997 p. 313). The science behind this phenomenon is complex, and it is essential to understand that super cooled water can be present even though the temperature outside the airplane below freezing. When a droplet of super cooled water hits the airplane, the surface tension on the outside of the droplet breaks (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p. 247). Since the airframe is cold and at or below freezing, if the ambient temperature is likewise, the droplet freezes to the airframe upon impact, and ice forms. Ignore the friction heating that occurs on the leading edges of the airframe, when though the space shuttle gets red hot from friction as it reenters the atmosphere, it will not gain any similar effect in a small airplane (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p.246). At speeds faster than about 400 knots, ice seldom adheres to airframes, but does not go that fast either. When your light airplane goes through the applicable atmospheric conditions, ice will form on it (Lankford, 2000 p. 64). Airframe icing can also occur when the clouds or other visible moisture and the surface of the airplane are at a temperature slightly warmer than freezing and the water is not super cooled. As water droplets hit the airframe and splatter, they cool slightly (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 16). Expect airframe ice in temperatures as warm as about 34Ã °Ã¢â¬â36Ã °F. Ice that forms on the structure of the airplane falls into three classifications: rime, clear, and mixed. Rime ice is cloudy in appearance due primarily to the fact that it contains air entrained within the ice (Ashford, Stanton, Moore, 1997 p. 312). Clear ice is smooth and much more transparent than is rime because it has little if any air trapped inside. On the other hand, mixed ice is a combination of rime and clear types. The Dangers of Ice and the Rationale for its Removal Ice and snow removal in air crafts post various risks that may affect the passengers and the crew present especially during flight. Our discussion about the effects of ice on the airframe and dealing with icing encounters assumes that flying an airplane that is not approved for flight into known icing conditions. Only a very few light, single engine airplanes are so approved, while the greatest majority of light planes cannot be flown into icing conditions, either legally or safely (Ashford, Stanton, Moore, 1997 p. 314). Accumulations of ice on the airframe do three things, none of which is positive: airfoils change shape, weight is added, and drag increases The worst part of airframe ice is the simple fact that all three negatives act togetherÃ¢â¬âyou never get just one or two of them (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 16). When ice accumulates, the airplane needs to carry more weight, with a wing that has far less lifting power than it will when clean of ice, and the airplaneÃ¢â¬â¢s increased drag must be overcome by a propeller that cannot produce its normal thrust, since it is contaminated with ice too (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p. 248). This combination has effects that are exponential in the decreased performance of the airplane. Any amount of Ice on the wings, tail surfaces, and propeller changes the shape of the affected surface. This change of shape changes the airfoil and alters its characteristics. Ice never accumulates exactly the same way twice, so when flying an airplane, not approved for known icing conditions, and get into ice with it (Kazda and Caves, 2007 p. 112). When a factory seeks certification of an airplane for flight into known icing, any experiments and analyses are performed that do not done for a lightplane, which is not going to be certified for known icing (Ashford, Stanton, Moore, 1997 p. 313). The manufacturer will do, or contract to have done, what is known as an impingement analysis. This means that, through the use of computer models and scientific analysis, engineers will look at the airfoils and determine where water droplets of certain sizes will affect the leading edge. After the impingement analysis is completed, the airplane will be flown in natural icing conditions as a part of its certification trials (Vinson, Rooney, 2006 p. 72). Often, a model of the wing will be put into a wind tunnel that can spray water droplets onto it, and further test the results of the impingement analysis. Moreover, the airplane will be flown behind a tanker that sprays water onto it so the flight test people can see how the entire deicing system works in flight (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 18). None of these steps is taken when certifying an airplane that will not be approved for flight into known icing (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p. 248). Such is the reason for precarious position when getting into ice in a typical light plane, which has never been tested or certified for known icing. Nobody knows what shape the airfoils will take as Ice builds on them. As the accumulation progresses, the shapes of the wing, tail surfaces, and prop are continually changing (Kazda and Caves, 2007 p. 114). No one knows the handling qualities, stall speeds, stall characteristics, reduction of prop thrust, or any of the other performance parameters of what is now a totally new and different airplane (Ashford, Stanton, Moore, 1997 p. 314). Ice adds mass to the entire airframe where it adheres. Mass equals weight; therefore, an airplane encountering ice gets heavier as the ice grows. Ice is also very heavy. Water weighs about 64 pounds per cubic foot, and recall that clear ice will be very close to the weight of water (Andersland and Ladanyi, 2004 p. 246). Rime and mixed ice will be a little lighter, but not by much. As the buildup occurs, the drag penalty increases, and again the effects grow at exponential rates. Even small parts of the airplane, like radio antennae, once coated with ice, become producers of large amounts of drag (Vinson, Rooney, 2006 p. 71). Snow and Ice Removal in Ground Areas Occasionally, some will find an airport that will use sand on a runway and other paved areas, but sand can wreak havoc when ingested into turbine engines, it can also be picked up by propellers and heavily abrade them With the increasing jet and turboprop fleets, sand is not used much anymore. Most airports do a very good job of plowing snow from the areas where airplanes operate (Eichenberg, 2001 p. 16). However, plowing alone cannot remove all of the snow, and is little help at clearing ice from the paved areas. Even though the modern chemicals do some good, a runway cannot be rid of ice like a road can where salt is used. Pilots have to expect and deal with ice on the ground.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Lasers and Their Uses We have all at some point in our lives used or seen someone use a laser. They are used in compact disc players for stereos or computers, laser surgery, laser printers, holography, cutting and borring metals, communication, bar-code scanners, etc. Over the past three decades' lasers have become a tool used daily by many people and they have become very useful in scientific research. As you can see lasers are a very useful and important tool which is why I have chosen this topic to write about. The term laser is an acronym. It stands for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". They produce a narrow, intense beam of coherent light. In a laser the atoms or molecules of a crystal, like ruby or garnet-or of a gas, liquid, or other substance-are excited so that more of them are at higher energy levels than are at lower energy levels. If a photon whose frequency corresponds to the energy difference between the excited and ground states strikes an excited atom, the atom is stimulated, as it falls back to a lower energy state, to emit a second photon of the same frequency, in phase with and in the same direction as the bombarding photon. This process is called stimulated emission. The bombarding photon of the emitted photon may then strike other excited atoms, stimulating further emission of photons, all of the same frequency and phase. This process produces a sudden burst of coherent radiation as all the atoms discharge in a rapid chain reaction. The light beam produces is usually pencil thin and maintains its size and direction over very long distances. Lasers vary greatly in the way they look and what they are used for. Some lasers are as large as buildings while others can be the size of a grain of salt. There are many parts to lasers. I will now explain what they are and their uses. 1) Pumping systems: The pumping system is used to transmit energy to the atoms or molecules of the medium used in the laser. a. optical pumping systems uses photons provided by a source such as a Xenon gas flash lamp or another laser to transfer energy to the lasing material. The optical source must provide photons which correspond to the allowed transition levels of the lasing material. b. collision pumping relies on the transfer of energy to the lasing material by collision with the atoms or molecules of the lasing material. Again, energies which correspond to the allowed transition must be provided. This often done by electrical discharge in a pure gas - or gas mixture - in a tube.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
HagÃ¢â¬â¢s Nook is a detective story by John Dickson Carr that is first published in 1933. It is a mystery type of novel and the first to feature in the series of detective Gideon Fell. The author, John Dickson Carr was born in 1906 in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. His first published detective novel, It Walks by Night, was published in 1930 featuring the Frenchman Henri Bencolin. Apart from Dr. Fell, whose first appearance was in 1933 in Hag?s Nook, Sir Henry Merrivale, who debuted in The Plague Court Murders in 1934 was Carr?s other series detectives. The synopsis goes this way: Young American Tad Rampole is travelling in England who meets and falls in love with Dorothy Starberth, in a chance meet on a railway platform. Within a short period of time, after an introduction letter made by Rampole to Dr. Gideon Fell both become engaged in the affairs of the Starberth family. Dr. Fell discovers the truth behind the legends after Martin Starberth is murdered. Chaterham Prison was the legend in the village. Abandoned for a hundred of years and had kept its secrets of extreme fear and death. The Starberths die of broken necks. He must arrange ancient superstition from modern-day malice to guarantee that the responsible criminal does not go and not punished. This novel emotionally moved me clearly to the days of reading Ripper. It was quite interesting to imagine the traps and see how the villain lured their victims. Lastly, I am definitely recommending this novel HagÃ¢â¬â¢s Nook for those who likes reading detective stories that is full of suspense and mystery.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Illegal immigration has become an explosive issue in the U.S. Many people have debated fervently in their disapproval of illegal immigration, whereas others defend it just as ardently. The church and Christian religion/theology has been drawn into the fray over illegal aliens as well, with Christians on both sides seeking to validate their positions based on their own individual beliefs. I interviewed many different people with equally varying opinions on the matter. Over the past few months, many people, old and young, have been educated on the ethical dilemma that immigration has caused; especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. Every person I interviewed had valid statements about the issue that is affecting the United States and the World. The majority of people I interviewed were Christian; however, one person was an Atheist and another was Agnostic. I found their opinions extremely interesting for the fact that their opinions were morally based and not spiritually. I did ask in depth of the Christian interviewees about how their religious and spiritual view affects the view of this controversial issue. Some used the law of the land as an important aspect. They believe that those who illegally enter any country violate that nationÃ¢â¬â¢s laws as well as the laws of God. Believers are torn between showing compassion and mercy to the illegal immigrants who seek help and not wanting to disrupt GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word. The government expects private citizens to act as law enforcement.Show MoreRelatedIllegal Immigration Issues1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIllegal immigration is quickly becoming a big issue in this country. With the country divided on whether to call for improved border security and reform for illegal citizens to be naturalized, there is something that needs to be done. Illegal immigration in the United States is something the government needs to begin focusing on and reaching a decision to help improve the wellbeing of this country. There are too m any people in which are affected by this issue for it not to be at the top of CongressesRead MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe issue of illegal immigration has become one of the most important issues of concern to the international community and the countries that represent a source of migrants as well as countries that receive them it is worth mentioning that there is a close link will appear in the coming days between the global financial crisis and the issue of illegal immigration; since that crisis will push millions of young people to the lists of unemployed to increase their number in developing countries, andRead MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration1420 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOne of the most controversial issues in politics today is that of illegal immigration. 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In the beginning it really was not as big of an issue that it is todayRead MoreIllegal Immigration Is Not The Issue961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUndocumented Issue Often when I dive into almost any political debate or national issue I find that people love to argue over the symptoms of an issue and almost never the root cause. Illegal immigration is just one of these symptoms, however I prefer the more accurate term of undocumented immigration. Illegal immigration is not the issue at hand, the issue at hand is that the state and federal governments do not want people working that are undocumented. First of all, what makes one an illegal immigrantRead MoreIssues of Illegal Immigration2970 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesa hotbed for illegal immigration issues, so the news flew under the radar. Last year, the state enacted immigration reform of its own after tiring of seeing politicians of all stripes kick the problem down the road. But heres the thing the reforms worked. The states unemployment rate fell 0.6%, and a lot of those new jobs that were created were specifically attributed to companies hiring Americans after shedding their illegal workers (Munro, 2011). So what is it about immigration reform? EverybodyRead MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration Essay2314 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesImmigration Immigration has been a controversial topic for decades. It began a long time ago when slaves were brought in from the atlantic as a response to the increasing demand for labor in the United States. There were no legislative restrictions on immigration until the 1800s. Immigration began to become more of an issue as more and more people began to enter the United States, and as more people were found to be living illegally, the problem of illegal immigration arose. There are manyRead MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration Essay977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBorders Illegal immigration is an issue that plagues the border states and it must be controlled. What should be done with illegal immigrants has been a hotly contested issue in the news and also during the current election process. In Ã¢â¬Å"ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Numbers April 2016 UpdateÃ¢â¬ , Brooks Jackson states that in 2014, 11.3 million illegal immigrants came into the US. The Democrats and Republicans debate on whether amnesty or mass deportation is the better alternative on what to do with these illegal immigrantsRead MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNo issue in any immigration policy kindles more dispute than the issue of illegal immigration. Unfortunately, some people confuse legal and illegal immigration. Legal immigrants are here legally. They have the proper, legal documents that allow them to live and work in the U.S. without complications. Illegal immigrants are defined as anyone who was born in a country other than the U.S. to parents who are not official U.S. citizens; they enter the U.S. without legal documents to prove their legalRead MoreThe Media And The Issue Of Illegal Immigration777 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Paper #1: Discuss how the different media outlets frame the issue of illegal immigration? It is commonly known that media coverage of anything controversial can be faulty, and biased. ABC News and CCN News could cover the same story, in different ways. This is amplified in cases that affect different audiences (as in age, race, financial class), because certain stations are aimed towards a certain audience. A great example of this is FOX and FOX Latino. The two stations, though sister stations